Berkeley Lab
Bringing Science Solutions to the World

TOUGH History

Historical Overview of TOUGH Simulators


Simulator Description Released Key Reference
AMESH Released released as a Free Software Download. AMESH generates layered TOUGH mesh based on 2D Voronoi tesselation of user-specified, irregular surface points. 2020 Haukwa, 1998
TOGA Released for licensing. TOGA (TOUGH Oil, Gas, Aqueous) is a numerical reservoir simulator for modeling non-isothermal flow and transport of water, CO2, multicomponent oil, and related gas components for applications including CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and geologic carbon sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. 2020 Pan and Oldenburg, 2020
toughio Authorized for distribution. toughio is an open-source library that provides tools to facilitate pre- and post-processing for TOUGH using the latest Python standards. It aims to make setting up of a TOUGH simulation user-friendly by relying on existing well-established Python packages, namely numpy, meshio and pyvista (Link to toughio documentation). 2020 visit site
TOUGH3 TOUGH3 replaces TOUGH2 in the TOUGH family of codes. TOUGH3 consolidates more than a decade of independent developments of the TOUGH codes by multiple researchers, including the massively parallel version TOUGH2-MP, into a single flagship simulator coded in FORTRAN90 capable of exploiting multi-processor machines. While TOUGH3 has significant coding changes to facilitate parallel execution particularly in parts of the code related to linear equation solution, experienced TOUGH2 users will find familiar subroutine names and FORTRAN code in the subsurface process (e.g., flow, transport, phase equilibria, capillary pressure, etc.) subroutines which remain relatively unchanged from the originals developed by Karsten Pruess and others over the last several decades. 2019 Jung et al., 2018
TOUGH-MP TOUGH-MP is no longer supported. 2019 Zhang et al., 2008
TOUGHREACT V3.0-OMP A version of the reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT that includes OpenMP parallelization of chemical reactions 2014 Xu et al. (2014)
ECO2N V2 Temperature range expanded to 10°C < T < 300°C, and salinity up to halite saturation; ECO2N V2 also accounts for the effects of water on the thermophysical properties of the CO2-rich phase 2014 Pan et al. (2014)
EOS7C-ECBM Module for enhanced coal bed methane (includes dusty gas model) 2013 Webb (2011)
TOUGHREACT V2.0 Version 2.0 of TOUGHREACT, distributed by Berkeley Lab Marketplace 2012 Xu et al. (2012)
TOUGH2 V2.1 Nonisothermal multiphase, multicomponent flow 2011 Pruess et al. (1999/2012)
ECO2M Multiphase flow of sub- and supercritical CO2 2011 Pruess (2011)
T2Well Coupled wellbore–reservoir simulator 2011 Pan et al. (2011)
TOUGH+ Re-engineered and expanded version of TOUGH2 simulator, specifically for the simulation of hydrate-bearing geologic media. 2008 Moridis et al. (2008)
TOUGH-MP Massively parallel version of TOUGH2 2008 Zhang et al. (2008)
ECO2N EOS module for sub- and supercritical CO2 2005 Pruess (2005)
EOS7C Module for water, brine, CO2 or N2, tracer, CH4, and heat intended for applications involving mixed gases in gas reservoirs 2004 Oldenburg et al. (2004)
TOUGHREACT Nonisothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport including equilibrium and kinetic mineral dissolution and precipitation, chemically active gases, intra-aqueous and sorption reaction kinetics and biodegradation 2004 Xu and Pruess (2001); Xu et al. (2004)
TMVOC Nonisothermal flow of water, air, multiples VOCs and NCGs in aqueous, gaseous, and NAPL phase 2002 Pruess and Battistelli (2002)
TOUGH-FLAC Research code for coupled multiphase flow and thermal-geomechanical processes; links TOUGH2 and FLAC3D (Itasca Consulting Group, 1997) 2002 Rutqvist et al. (2002)
TOUGH2 V2 Nonisothermal multiphase, multicomponent flow 1999 Pruess et al. (1999)
iTOUGH2 Inverse modeling, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation analysis, and data-worth analysis for TOUGH2 and additional EOS modules 1997 Finsterle (1997)
T2VOC Nonisothermal flow of water, air and VOCs in aqueous, gaseous and NAPL phase for environmental applications 1995 Falta et al. (1995)
TOUGH2 Nonisothermal flow of water and NCG in aqueous and gaseous phase 1991 Pruess (1991)
TOUGH Nonisothermal flow of water and air in aqueous and gaseous phase 1987 Pruess (1987)
MULKOM Research code for nonisothermal multiphase, multicomponent flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids 1983 Pruess (1983)
NAPL: nonaqueous phase liquid; NCG: noncondensible gas; VOC: volatile organic compound